Sauganash was once part of the Sauganash land tract (Caldwell's Reserve) and was annexed by the city of Chicago in 1889. This neighborhood is named after Billy Caldwell, also known as Sauganash (meaning "English speaking"). Born to a Mohawk mother and an Irish father, William Caldwell, Sr., a Captain of the British Butler Rangers, he became a leader of the Potawotomi. The “Treaty Elm" which stood until the 1930s was originally used in the first and second government surveys of the reserve. Sauganash negotiated with the United States on behalf of the United Nations of the Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawotomi. In return for his services, the US gave him 1600 acres on the Chicago River.
Today the neighborhood is home to three churches: Sauganash Community Church, a non-denominational Protestant church; Bride of Christ Church; and Queen of All Saints, a Roman Catholic Basilica. The Sauganash residential neighborhood has many distinctive homes. It also had large tracts of prairie land until the mid-1950s.
The Sauganash neighborhood is bordered by Devon Avenue to the north, Bryn Mawr Avenue to the south, the Edens Expressway (Interstate 94) to the west, and the Valley Line bike trail to the east. Devon Avenue marks the northern boundary of the city limits of Chicago at this point. The suburb of Lincolnwood begins north of Devon Avenue.
The neighborhood of Sauganash Park lies east of the Valley Line trail.
LaBagh Woods forest preserve is directly south of Sauganash.
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